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A Deadly Disease Is Wiping Out Caribbean Coral, Researchers Find

COZUMEL (Washington Post) A regionwide outbreak of coral disease in the Caribbean is killing off up to 94 percent of some coral species in what researchers say could become the “most deadly [such] disturbance ever recorded” in the area, according to findings published this week.

Stony coral tissue loss disease, first reported off Florida in 2014, has rapidly spread, diffusing across the Caribbean. The waterborne disease, researchers say, probably is made worse by coastal development and climate change — and human intervention probably is necessary to prevent regionwide extinction of some species.

Marine ecologist and researcher Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip and colleagues surveyed dozens of sites in the Mexican Caribbean before the outbreak, in 2016 and 2017, and after it began, in 2018 to 2020.

They found what they described as an “unprecedented loss of corals,” according to the new study showing the extent of the problem, published in the journal Communications Biology. Of more than 29,000 coral colonies assessed in the Mexican Caribbean after the start of the outbreak, 17 percent were dead and 10 percent were infected.

A Deadly Disease Is Wiping Out Caribbean Coral, Researchers Find
Several coral species afflicted by the disease in Cozumel, Mexico, in January 2019, as seen in the study published in Communications Biology. (Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip)

It’s a “very aggressive” disease, Álvarez-Filip told The Washington Post, adding that once coral is infected, it can die within weeks, even days. The infected corals’ living tissue begins to disintegrate, sometimes losing color. Of 48 recorded coral species in the area, more than 20 were affected — with varying mortality rates, some as high as 94 percent.

The disease was found to affect several species that are important builders in the ecosystem — posing a threat to the capacity of corals, which are animals, to build reefs that provide habitats for other organisms, offer coastal protection and drive tourism.

While the disease is relentless and its origins are not fully established, a key finding is that humans could be making matters worse: More corals appeared to become sick near areas of coastal development — around urban areas, hotels and tourism spots with pollution and runoff, Álvarez-Filip said.

He offered an example: If you go to a hospital where the underlying conditions are good, it’s more probable that you will recover. For the reefs, pollution is a compounding problem, making diseases harder to kick. “The problem is that everything is changing,” Álvarez-Filip said.

Robert H. Richmond, the director and a research professor at the University of Hawaii at Manoa’s Kewalo Marine Laboratory, said the wider region, including the coasts of the Caribbean, Florida and Mexico, has recently experienced a “triple whammy”: severe hurricanes that can topple or smother coral, coral bleaching tied to climate change and elevated seawater temperatures, and now the spread of disease.

“It was kind of insult and injury on top of insult and injury,” he said. “It’s driven these coral reefs and populations to the point where they’re no longer capable of self-sustaining. … They’ve been decimated. And it’s kind of a downhill spiral.”

Corals, Richmond said, require sufficient density to carry out their elegant once-a-year spawning, which is cued by the lunar cycle. They simultaneously release eggs and sperm — gametes — into the water. As corals are unable to move, their gametes float up to the water’s surface, fertilize, then drop back down to begin growing into new coral.

“As corals die and the distance between living colonies increases, the chance of spawning events succeeding drops precipitously,” Richmond said.

Some species’ populations are so low, and their ability to reproduce so compromised by changing environmental factors, including water quality — suffering under a “rogue’s gallery of chemicals” from sewer outfalls — that there is little hope for a recovery without some form of human intervention, he said.

A Deadly Disease Is Wiping Out Caribbean Coral, Researchers Find
Brain coral with full mortality after stony coral tissue loss disease in Cozumel, Mexico, seen in April 2019. (Lorenzo Álvarez-Filip)

Although it would be difficult to stop the spread of the contagious disease, Álvarez-Filip said efforts are underway — including reef restoration, the preservation of genetic material and the administration of probiotics to increase resilience.

But “these efforts will only succeed if we change the regional conditions,” Álvarez-Filip said. “We may invest a lot of effort, a lot of money to try to rescue and restore coral,” he said. “But at the end, if we still have climate change, we still have deforestation; we still have pollution.”

The health of corals can be likened to that of a bank account, with live corals as the principal and reproduction the interest, Richmond said.

“If you put corals back into an area of poor water quality next to an urbanized area, you’re basically putting it into a bank account that not only has no interest but has a high monthly fee,” he said. “Nothing that’s produced there is going to end up receiving a population, and, eventually, those corals are going to die and need to be replenished. And so you go bankrupt.”

By SAMMY WESTFALL/Washington Post

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Colombia Discovers Two Historical Shipwrecks In The Caribbean

BOGOTA (Reuters) Colombian naval officials conducting underwater monitoring of the long-sunken San Jose galleon have discovered two other historical shipwrecks nearby, President Ivan Duque said this week.

The San Jose galleon, thought by historians to be carrying treasure that would be worth billions of dollars, sank in 1708 near Colombia’s Caribbean port of Cartagena.

Its potential recovery has been the subject of decades of litigation.

A remotely operated vehicle reached 900 meters depth, Duque and naval officials said in a video statement, allowing new videos of the wreckage.

Colombia Discovers Two Historical Shipwrecks In The Caribbean
Artifacts found in the wreckage of Spanish galleon San Jose, Cartagena, Colombia are seen in this undated handout picture released by the Colombian Presidency to Reuters on June 6, 2022. Colombian Presidency/Handout via REUTERS

The vehicle also discovered two other nearby wrecks – a colonial boat and a schooner thought to be from around the same period as Colombia’s war for independence from Spain, some 200 years ago.

“We now have two other discoveries in the same area, that show other options for archaeological exploration,” navy commander Admiral Gabriel Perez said. “So the work is just beginning.”

The images offer the best-yet view of the treasure that was aboard the San Jose – including gold ingots and coins, cannons made in Seville in 1655 and an intact Chinese dinner service.

Archaeologists from the navy and government are working to determine the origin of the plates based on inscriptions, the officials said.

“The idea is to recover it and to have sustainable financing mechanisms for future extractions,” President Ivan Duque said. “In this way we protect the treasure, the patrimony of the San Jose galleon.”

Colombia Discovers Two Historical Shipwrecks In The Caribbean
Screenshot from a video of the Cartagena shipwreck off the coast of Colombia

The two shipwrecks were discovered near the ruins of the famous San José galleon, sunk off the coast of Cartagena, Colombia, more than 300 years ago, according to that country’s naval officials.

Colombian authorities also released new footage of the San José wreckage, which the government says was discovered in 2015 and which is often described as the “holy grail” of shipwrecks.

The footage was taken during four observation missions by the Colombian navy, using a remotely operated vehicle sent to a depth of some 3,100 feet off the country’s Caribbean coast. The eerie blue-and-green images show gold coins, pottery and intact porcelain cups scattered on the seafloor.

Reporting by Julia Symmes Cobb. Editing by Gerry Doyle

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Tropical Wave To Bring Showers; Risk Of Rip Currents For St. Croix

SAN JUAN A tropical wave will bring a few rounds of showers to the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico today.

A high risk of rip currents continues across northern Puerto Rico, Culebra and St Croix, the National Weather Service said this morning.

In total, the National Hurricane Center is monitoring four tropical waves in the Atlantic basin, including one in the Caribbean, according to the latest advisory.

But for the Caribbean Sea, North Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico, no tropical cyclone formation is expected over the next five days, according to the NWS.

Tropical Wave To Bring Showers; Risk Of Rip Currents For St. Croix

Una onda tropical producirá aguaceros durante el día.

El riesgo alto de corrientes marinas continua a través del norte de Puerto Rico, Culebra y St. Croix.

No se esperan nuevos ciclones tropicales durante los próximos cinco días.

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Trinidad and Tobago In Talks With Quanten LLC For Refinery Sale

PORT OF SPAIN (Reuters) Trinidad and Tobago is in talks with U.S.-based Quanten LLC for the sale of the country’s refinery, Energy Minister Stuart Young said on Sunday, more than a year after the government rejected a proposal by a local group to buy the facility.

The Caribbean nation’s government three years ago shut down the state-run refinery Petrotrin, which at the time had a capacity to process about 140,000 barrels per day of crude, due to losses of over $1 billion in the prior five years.

“Quanten LLC is an American company that is engaged in the (request for proposal) process for the refinery,” Young said in a statement.

“The company is engaged with TPHL and has to go through the standard and required processes in these types of matters,” he said, referring to state-owned Trinidad Petroleum Holdings Limited, which is handling the request for proposal process.

Quanten did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

Trinidad and Tobago’s government in early 2021 said Patriotic Energies, a subsidiary of a trade union which represents oil workers, could not provide any credible offer of financing for the refinery.

Reporting by Linda Hutchinson-Jafar in Port of Spain and Brian Ellsworth in Miami; Editing by Himani Sarkar

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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Jamaican Pol Wants Bob Marley Named A National Hero

KINGSTON (Reuters) A Jamaican legislator is asking the country’s parliament to name reggae legend Bob Marley a national hero, an effort that comes amid rising nationalism in English-speaking Caribbean countries that are distancing themselves from their colonial past.

The proposal by lawmaker Lisa Hanna would make the iconic singer a national hero, a title already held by seven Jamaicans including Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey and the nation’s first prime minister Alexander Bustamante.

It comes months after Barbados bestowed a similar honor on pop singer Rihanna during a November ceremony in which the island severed its ties to the British monarchy and created a republic – a process Jamaica is also considering.

“Bob Marley deserves that recognition because he lived a very short life that transformed the thinking of people around the world,” Hanna told Reuters in an interview at her Kingston office.

It is not immediately evident when parliament will vote on the measure. Hanna hopes it will be approved in time for the 60th anniversary of the country’s independence on Aug 6.

Marley was born in 1945 in the rural parish of St. Ann to a white English father and a Black Jamaican mother.

When he was 12, he moved to Trench Town in Kingston, where he and musicians Bunny Wailer and Peter Tosh developed what would become a globally recognized reggae sound. Marley died in 1981 of melanoma, a form of skin cancer.

His rise to fame helped create a positive image for Jamaica, which at the time was beset by deep political division that played out in violent street confrontations and shootouts between gangs of opposing ideologies.

“It was the possibility that Jamaica could actually have a superstar in the middle of the poverty and the violence,” said Matthew Smith, a Jamaican historian at the University College of London.

Marcia Griffiths, who sang for years with Marley, including on classic tracks such as “No Woman, No Cry,” also supports Hanna’s proposal.

“Bob is a legend and an icon who has done so much for the entire world,” she said in an interview.

“The power and the force of music can change the world, and that is why God gave us a man like Bob.”

Reporting by Kate Chappell in Kingston, writing by Brian Ellsworth in Miami; Editing by Bernadette Baum

Our Standards: The Thomson Reuters Trust Principles.

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2022 Atlantic Hurricane Season Begins Today

MIAMI — There is an 80 percent chance that a hurricane will form in the next 48 hours from an area of low pressure located near the east coast of the Yucatan Peninsula and the southeastern Gulf of Mexico, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) said today.

“This system is likely to become a tropical depression while it moves slowly northeastward over the northwestern Caribbean Sea and southeastern Gulf of Mexico during the next day or two,” the Florida-based forecaster said.

Although the NHC continues to monitor the area of disturbed weather near the Gulf of Mexico with a high chance of development, no impacts are expected for the U.S. Virgin Islands or Puerto Rico.

Near the Yucatan Peninsula and southeastern Gulf of Mexico: A large area of disturbed weather located near the Yucatan Peninsula is interacting with an upper-level trough over the Gulf of Mexico and producing a broad region of disorganized showers and thunderstorms.

Environmental conditions appear marginally conducive for gradual development, and this system is likely to become a tropical depression by the weekend as it moves northeastward into the northwestern Caribbean Sea, southeastern Gulf of Mexico, and crosses the Florida Peninsula.

2022 Atlantic Hurricane Season Begins Today
Truecolor satellite image from NOAA

Regardless of development, locally heavy rainfall is likely across portions of southeastern Mexico, the Yucatan Peninsula, Guatemala, and Belize during the next couple of days, spreading across western Cuba, southern Florida, and the Florida Keys on Friday and Saturday. Interests in the Yucatan Peninsula, western Cuba, the Florida Keys, and the Florida Peninsula should monitor the progress of this system.

* Formation chance through 48 hours…medium…50 percent. * Formation chance through 5 days…high…70 percent. 2. Southwestern Atlantic northeast of the Bahamas: A weak surface trough located around 200 miles northeast of the central Bahamas is producing disorganized shower activity as it interacts with an upper-level trough. Surface pressures are currently high across the area, and significant development of this system appears unlikely as it moves generally east-northeastward over the next several days away from the southeastern United States.

* Formation chance through 48 hours…low…10 percent. * Formation chance through 5 days…low…10 percent.

Today marks the first day of the Atlantic hurricane season, which will run until November 30. Long-term averages for the number of named storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes are 14, 7, and 3, respectively. The list of names for 2022 is as follows:

2022 Atlantic Hurricane Season Begins Today
St. Thomas St. John adjacent Islands-St Croix-
Nearshore Atlantic and adjacent Caribbean Coastal Waters-
5:28 AM AST Wed Jun 1 2022

This Hazardous Weather Outlook is for the U.S. Virgin Islands and the adjacent Coastal Waters.

.Day One...Today and Tonight

.Rip Currents...There is a moderate risk of rip currents for 
all local beaches today.

.Days Two through Seven...Thursday through Tuesday

A moderate risk of rip currents is expected for most of the local 
beaches during most of the period.

.Spotter information statement...

Spotter activation is not anticipated. Please relay any information
about winds, waves, and rip currents to the National Weather Service
in San Juan while following all local and state guidelines.

This report, the Tropical Weather Outlook, briefly describes significant areas of disturbed weather and their potential for  tropical cyclone formation during the next five days.  

The issuance  times of this product are 2 AM, 8 AM, 2 PM, and 8 PM EDT.  After the  change to standard time in November, the issuance times are 1 AM, 7  AM, 1 PM, and 7 PM EST. A Special Tropical Weather Outlook will be issued to provide  updates, as necessary, in between the regularly scheduled issuances  of the Tropical Weather Outlook.  Special Tropical Weather Outlooks  will be issued under the same WMO and AWIPS headers as the regular  

Tropical Weather Outlooks. A standard package of products, consisting of the tropical cyclone  public advisory, the forecast/advisory, the cyclone discussion, and  a wind speed probability product, is issued every six hours for all  ongoing tropical cyclones.  In addition, a special advisory package  may be issued at any time to advise of significant unexpected  changes or to modify watches or warnings. 

The Tropical Cyclone Update is a brief statement to inform of  significant changes in a tropical cyclone or to post or cancel  watches or warnings.  It is used in lieu of or to precede the  issuance of a special advisory package.  

Tropical Cyclone Updates,  which can be issued at any time, can be found under WMO header  WTNT61-65 KNHC, and under AWIPS header MIATCUAT1-5. All National Hurricane Center text and graphical products are available on the web at https://www.hurricanes.gov. More information  on NHC text products can be found at  https://www.hurricanes.gov/aboutnhcprod.shtml, while more  information about NHC graphical products can be found at  https://www.hurricanes.gov/aboutnhcgraphics.shtml. 

You can also interact with NHC on Facebook at  https://www.facebook.com/NWSNHC. Notifications are available via  Twitter when select National Hurricane Center products are issued.   Information about our Atlantic Twitter feed (@NHC_Atlantic) is  available at https://www.hurricanes.gov/twitter.php. 

CNH vigila zona cerca del Golfo de México con potencial alto de desarrollo, pero no se espera impactos en PR o USVI. #prwx #usviwx
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Jamaican National Charged With Illegal Re-Entry By A Felon

CHARLOTTE AMALIE United States Attorney Delia L. Smith announced today that Veron Venita Goulbourne, 60, a Jamaican national, has been charged with being present in the United States after removal and conviction for an aggravated felony.

If convicted, Goulbourne faces a maximum penalty of 20 years in prison.

According to court documents, Goulbourne was previously removed from the United States in March 2000, after she was convicted of an aggravated felony.

Court documents further show that on April 24, 2022, Goulbourne was a ticketed passenger on a flight from St. Thomas to Miami, Florida.

When Goulbourne presented herself at the U.S. Customs and Border Protection primary inspection point at Cyril E. King Airport, officers determined that she had no legal status in the United States having been
previously removed.

Homeland Security Investigations is investigating. Assistant U.S. Attorney Adam Sleeper is prosecuting the case.

United States Attorney Smith reminds the public that a criminal complaint is merely a formal charging document and is not evidence of guilt.

Every defendant is presumed innocent until and unless proven guilty

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Coast Guard Takes 35 Illegal Migrants Back To The DR

SAN JUAN, Puerto Rico — The Coast Guard between Tuesday and Friday returned eight Dominican, 15 Haitian and 12 Uzbek nationals to the Dominican Republic, following the interdiction of two illegal voyages in Mona Passage waters near Puerto Rico.

Four other Dominicans apprehended during these interdictions are facing federal criminal prosecution in Puerto Rico for attempted illegal re-entry into the United States. The United States Attorney’s Office for the District of Puerto Rico is leading the prosecutions in this case.

“We remain gravely concerned for the safety of people embarking illegal voyages across the Mona Passage and ask they not take to the sea,” said Capt. José E. Díaz, acting commander of Coast Guard Sector San Juan. “The dangers are quite evident; each of these voyages is a mass rescue case waiting to happen.  Your life will be in danger as the voyages most often take place aboard grossly overloaded and unseaworthy makeshift vessels that are highly unstable, continuously are taking on water, and have little or no adequate life-saving equipment.”

The interdictions are the result of ongoing local and federal multi-agency efforts in support of the Caribbean Border Interagency Group CBIG.

  • Coast Guard Cutter Donald Horsley interdicted a 26-foot makeshift boat Monday, initially detected by the aircrew of a Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine Enforcement aircraft, approximately 10 nautical miles south of Mona Island, Puerto Rico. The Donald Horsley crew embarked all 21 persons, including six Dominican and eight Haitian men, five Haitian women and two Haitian minors.

  • Coast Guard Cutter Joseph Tezanos interdicted a 25-foot makeshift boat May 18, 2022, initially detected by the aircrew of a Customs and Border Protection Air and Marine Enforcement aircraft, approximately 11 nautical miles northwest of Aguadilla, Puerto Rico. The cutter Joseph Tezanos crew embarked all 18 persons, including six Dominican and 12 Uzbek men.

Ramey Sector Border Patrol agents received custody of the four apprehended Dominican men Wednesday in Aguadilla, Puerto Rico.

Family members in the United States inquiring about possible family members interdicted at sea, please contact your local U.S. representative. Relatives located outside the United States please contact your local U.S. Embassy.

CBIG was formally created to unify efforts of the U.S. Customs and Border Protection, the U.S. Coast Guard, U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement, the United States Attorney’s Office for the District of Puerto Rico and Puerto Rico Police Joint Forces of Rapid Action, in their common goal of securing the borders of Puerto Rico against illegal migrant and drug smuggling.

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UVI Hosts USVI-BVI Mangrove Restoration Learning Exchange

The University of the Virgin Islands (UVI) Center for Marine and Environmental Studies (CMES) hosted a mangrove restoration learning exchange with individuals from the H. Lavity Stoutt Community College (HLCC) in Tortola, British Virgin Islands.

The exchange is the first of two that will bring researchers and students together in the U.S. Virgin Islands and the BVI to learn from each other about mangrove restoration techniques. The exchange is funded by the Virgin Islands Community Foundation’s Judith A. Towle Fund.

Faculty, staff, graduate, and undergraduate students attended the exchange which included a tour of UVI’s new, land-based mangrove and coral nurseries, a visit to a newly restored mangrove site at Range Cay, a tour of the University’s Environmental Analysis Lab, and a site visit to the St. Thomas East End Reserves, a marine protected area and potential future mangrove restoration site.  

UVI Hosts USVI-BVI Mangrove Restoration Learning Exchange

The exchange was led by UVI Assistant Professor, Kristin Wilson Grimes; UVI Watershed and Marine Specialist, Allie Durdall; and Head of Marine and Maritime Studies at the Centre for Applied Marine Studies (CAMS) at the HLCC, Susan Zaluski. Grimes leads a group dedicated to growing restoration, research, outreach, and education of the territory’s mangroves (GRROE U.S. Virgin Island Mangroves). The nursery has grown over 5,000 mangroves for restoration since its establishment in the spring of 2021 in St. Thomas, USVI.  

In the BVI, Susan Zaluski and students grow mangroves at three nurseries on Jost Van Dyke, Tortola, and Anegada. “Growing this collaboration and engaging communities across the Caribbean, makes restoration more efficient, effective, and fun, by sharing our successes and learning through failures,” Grimes said.  

“The BVI learning exchange was such a refreshing way to learn about all of the great things they’ve been doing in their nursery and it was a nice opportunity to network and exchange information,” student Kayla Halliday said. “I am excited to visit their nursery in person, soon.” 

For the next phase of the learning exchange, Grimes and her team will visit the HLCC nursery.  

UVI Hosts USVI-BVI Mangrove Restoration Learning Exchange

To learn more about mangrove research in the USVI, visit https://viepscor.org/r2r-mangroves or follow the GRROE team on instagram at: grroe.usvi.mangroves  

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New York Times Reveals How Haiti Became The Poorest Country In The Americas

By GERMAN LOPEZ/New York Times

France’s ransom
Haiti is one of the poorest countries in the world, and a new Times investigative series explores why. One stunning detail: France demanded reparations from Haitians it once enslaved. That debt hamstrung Haiti’s economy for decades — and kept it from building even basic social services, like sewage and electricity.
The series is based on more than a year of reporting, troves of centuries-old documents and an analysis of financial records. I spoke to my colleague Catherine Porter, one of the four reporters who led the project, about what they found.
Why tell Haiti’s story now?
I’ve been covering Haiti since the earthquake in 2010, and returned dozens of times. Any journalist that spends time in Haiti continually confronts the same question: Why are things so bad here?
The poverty is beyond compare to anywhere else. Even countries that are impoverished compared to the United States or Canada, or many Western countries — they still have some level of social services. Haiti just doesn’t.
Even if you’re rich, you have to bring in your own water, and you need a generator for electricity. There’s no real transportation system; it’s basically privatized. There’s no real sewage system, so people use outhouses or the outdoors. There’s no real garbage pickup, so trash piles up. There’s little public education — it’s mostly privatized — so poor people don’t get much, if any, formal schooling. The health care is abysmal.
The usual explanation for Haiti’s problems is corruption. But the series suggests something else is also to blame.
Yeah. This other answer lodged into the side of my mouth as I read more history books on Haiti. One by Laurent DuBois mentioned this “independence debt,” but he didn’t go into much detail. That was the first time that I read about it and was like, “What is this?”
So what was it?
After Haiti’s independence in 1804, France came back and demanded reparations for lost property — which turned out to include the enslaved humans. French officials encouraged the Haitian government to take out a loan from the French banks to pay.
It became known as a double debt: Haiti was in debt to former property owners — the colonists — and also to the bankers. Right from the get-go, Haiti was in an economic hole.
It is wild: The colonists asked the former slaves for reparations.
You have to remember that, at the time, no one came to help Haiti.
It was the only Black free country in the Americas, and it was a pariah. The British didn’t want to recognize it because they had Jamaica and Barbados as colonies. The Americans most certainly did not want to recognize it; they still hadn’t ended slavery.
What might Haiti look like today without this double debt?
One example is Costa Rica. It also had a strong coffee export industry, like Haiti does. When Haiti was spending up to 40 percent of its revenue on paying back this debt, Costa Rica was building electricity systems. People were putting in sewage treatment and schools. That would be closer to what Haiti could have been.
We haven’t even gotten into the U.S. occupation from 1915 to 1934 and Haiti’s dictator family, both of which further looted the country. It was one crisis after another inflicted on Haitians.
That’s true. A dictator, François Duvalier, came into power in 1957. Before that, the Haitian government had finally cleared most of its international debts. The World Bank had said that Haiti should rebuild. Instead, Duvalier and then his son put the country into increased misery.
As if that wasn’t enough, after Haiti’s president asked for reparations in 2003, France removed him from office, with U.S. help. Have France and the U.S. owned up to the damage?
France has had a slow softening. In 2015, its president, François Hollande, said that France had imposed a “ransom” on Haiti, and that he would pay it back. But very quickly, his aides corrected him, saying that he meant he was going to pay the moral debt back; he wasn’t talking about money.
The Times is translating these stories to Haitian Creole. What’s the goal?
If I’m talking to anyone on the street in Haiti, they’ll speak only Haitian Creole. So I felt that if we’re going to do a story about Haitian history, surely it should be accessed by the people of that country.
The most popular form of media in Haiti is the radio, especially in rural areas where illiteracy is high. My hope is that we can get the Creole version in the hands of some people to read parts of it over the radio, so people in Haiti can hear it and debate it and form their opinions.
This is a Haitian history. It should be made as accessible as possible to Haitians.
More on Catherine Porter: She grew up in Toronto and got her first full-time journalism job at The Vancouver Sun. In 2010, she went to Port-au-Prince for The Toronto Star to report on the earthquake — an assignment that changed her life. She has returned more than 30 times and written a memoir about her experiences there. She joined The Times in 2017, leading our Toronto bureau.
The Haiti series
The Times this weekend published several articles on Haiti’s history, including: